What Are the Key Properties of 1018 Bar Stock?

When it comes to selecting the right material for various applications, understanding the properties of the chosen material is crucial. 1018 bar stock, a popular choice in industries ranging from manufacturing to construction, possesses a unique set of properties that make it versatile and valuable. In this comprehensive article, we will explore the key properties of 1018 bar stock, delving deep into its composition, mechanical characteristics, and applications. Whether you’re a materials engineer, a fabricator, or simply curious, this article will provide you with a thorough understanding of what makes 1018 bar stock special.

  • Introduction to 1018 Bar Stock
  • Composition of 1018 Bar Stock
  • Mechanical Properties
    • Tensile Strength
    • Yield Strength
    • Elongation
    • Hardness
  • Physical Properties
    • Density
    • Melting Point
    • Thermal Conductivity
  • Chemical Properties
    • Carbon Content
    • Other Alloying Elements
  • Applications of 1018 Bar Stock
  • FAQs

Introduction to 1018 Bar Stock

What is 1018 Bar Stock?

1018 bar stock, often referred to as cold-rolled steel, is a low carbon steel alloy known for its versatility and ease of machining. The ‘1018’ in its name represents its grade, while ‘bar stock’ indicates its typical form: long, cylindrical bars. This alloy is favored in various industries due to its unique combination of properties, making it suitable for a wide range of applications.

Composition of 1018 Bar Stock

To understand its properties fully, let’s dive into the composition of 1018 bar stock.

Carbon Content

The defining feature of 1018 bar stock is its low carbon content, which averages around 0.18%. This low carbon concentration significantly impacts the material’s behavior and properties.

Mechanical Properties

Tensile Strength

1018 bar stock exhibits a tensile strength ranging from 370 MPa (megapascals) to 500 MPa, depending on factors such as heat treatment and the specific manufacturing process. This strength level is considered moderate, making it suitable for various structural and mechanical applications.

Yield Strength

The yield strength of 1018 bar stock typically falls between 275 MPa and 345 MPa. Yield strength represents the stress at which the material begins to deform plastically, and it’s a critical parameter for design and engineering calculations.


1018 bar stock offers excellent elongation properties, with values often exceeding 15%. Elongation measures the material’s ability to stretch before breaking and is crucial in applications where ductility is important.


The hardness of 1018 bar stock is relatively low compared to some other steel alloys. It typically has a Brinell hardness ranging from 126 to 183 HB (Brinell hardness units). This level of hardness makes it easy to machine and form, contributing to its widespread use.

Physical Properties

Let’s explore the physical properties of 1018 bar stock.


The density of 1018 bar stock is approximately 7.87 grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm³). This moderate density is consistent with most steel alloys and is essential for weight calculations in engineering and construction applications.

Melting Point

1018 bar stock, like many steel alloys, has a relatively high melting point. It typically melts at temperatures between 2,597°F (1,430°C) and 2,755°F (1,513°C), depending on the exact composition and manufacturing processes. This high melting point makes it suitable for applications requiring heat resistance.

Thermal Conductivity

1018 bar stock exhibits good thermal conductivity, which is a measure of how well it conducts heat. Its thermal conductivity is approximately 49.8 W/m·K (watts per meter-kelvin). This property is important in applications where heat dissipation or thermal management is necessary.

Chemical Properties

Understanding the chemical properties of 1018 bar stock is essential for predicting its behavior in various environments.

Carbon Content

As mentioned earlier, 1018 bar stock has a low carbon content of approximately 0.18%. This low carbon concentration contributes to its excellent weldability and machinability.

Other Alloying Elements

Besides carbon, 1018 bar stock may contain trace amounts of other alloying elements, but these are typically minimal. The simplicity of its alloying elements contributes to its predictable behavior and ease of processing.

Applications of 1018 Bar Stock

The versatile properties of 1018 bar stock make it suitable for a wide range of applications, including:

  • Machined Components: Its excellent machinability makes it ideal for precision parts and components in various industries.
  • Fasteners: 1018 bar stock is commonly used in the production of bolts, screws, and other fasteners.
  • Shafts and Axles: It finds applications in the manufacture of shafts and axles in automotive and machinery industries.
  • Construction: It is used in construction for structural components, such as beams and supports.


Q1. What is the difference between 1018 bar stock and other steel grades with higher carbon content?

A1. The primary difference lies in carbon content. 1018 bar stock has a low carbon content, which enhances its machinability and weldability but limits its strength compared to higher carbon steel grades.

Q2. Can 1018 bar stock be heat-treated to improve its properties?

A2. Yes, 1018 bar stock can be case-hardened or subjected to other heat treatment processes to increase its surface hardness and wear resistance.

Q3. Is 1018 bar stock suitable for welding applications?

A3. Yes, 1018 bar stock is well-suited for welding applications due to its excellent weldability, provided proper welding techniques and procedures are followed.

Q4. What industries commonly use 1018 bar stock?

A4. 1018 bar stock finds applications in industries such as automotive, manufacturing, construction, and agriculture, among others, thanks to its versatility and cost-effectiveness.

In conclusion, the key properties of 1018 bar stock, including its low carbon content, excellent machinability, and moderate strength, make it a valuable material in various industries. Understanding these properties is essential for making informed decisions when selecting materials for specific applications.

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